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Wounds from the Battle of Waterloo

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18/06/2015

By | From the Collections

A “damned near-run thing” said the Duke of Wellington on his victory over Napoleon at Waterloo on 18 June 1815. The Battle of Waterloo was the the bloody finale of the French Emperor’s 100-day reign. While Napoleon was exiled to the island of Saint Helena dying shortly after in 1821, Wellington achieved heroic status in Britain: he had successfully stopped Napoleon’s bid for power, which started in 1792 with the French Revolutionary wars.

Portrait of the Duke of Wellington

Arthur Wellesley, first Duke of Wellington. By Thomas Phillipsafter, 1814. Wellcome Library reference: 47109i.

The Library digitised 17 watercolour drawings of patients treated by the surgeon Charles Bell from the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) archive.  These drawings are from a set of 45 that Bell recorded in his sketchbook during the campaign – some of the watercolours were later worked up into life-size versions and used by Bell as illustrations in his lectures when he became Professor of Surgery at the University of Edinburgh in 1836.

Watercolour by Charles Bell of soldier at Waterloo

Cannon shot wound to the arm, Anthony Tuittmeyer, Hopital des Jesuites. Watercolour by Charles Bell, 1836. Wellcome Library reference: RAMC/95/1/14.

An accomplished surgeon and artist, Bell’s portraits of his patients describe not just their wounds and lacerations with anatomical accuracy but also their utter desolate, shocked or agonised expressions post-treatment, 10 or 12 days after injury.

Letters to Bell from surgeons who were subsequently in charge of the patients and later descriptions relating to the patients in the images highlight the grisly situation of many patients. Surgeons witnessed wounds of the liver, bladder and head and in some cases worse scenarios. One surgeon wrote: “Capt Campbell was my only death, I would not be permitted to open the body … he died spitting pus and with a liver morosely distended”.

 

Most wounds were caused by gun-shot, but occasionally sabres (a curved sword) were to blame, particularly among the French prisoners at Antwerp according to Bell’s graphic evidence. Not surprisingly the impact of these curved swords was vicious – one man was brought into the hospital “insensible” with a portion of bone hanging precariously. “None of the soldiers knew him” and he made “painful efforts to speak”. Bell advised “the isolated piece to be taken away and the integuments to be preserved”, an operation that “considerably relieved” his symptoms the day after but did not prevent the patient losing his memory altogether (Longmore, 1866).

watercolour by Charles Bell of injured soldier at Waterloo

Sabre wound to head, Hopital de la Gendarmerie, 5 July, 1836. Watercolour by Charles Bell from his sketchbook. Wellcome Library reference: RAMC/95/1/1.

Lances or bayonets inflicted punctured wounds; cannon balls or pieces of bombs inflicted lacerated wounds and often resulted in lost limbs; musket balls much larger than a modern day bullet inflicted gunshot wounds that lodged inside the body or tore straight through making them difficult to heal. Worse still were gaping grapeshot wounds that were caused by a bag of musketballs set on iron rings resulting in a super-sized shotgun blast. Inevitably haemorrhaging was common in all patients, sometimes with fatal consequences.

Watercolour by Charles Bell of soldier at Waterloo 1836

Grapeshot wound to the neck, James Alexander, 1836. Watercolour by Charles Bell. Wellcome Library  reference: RAMC/95/1/7.

Many of the wounded French were left to perish on the battlefield after losing the battle – Bell was required to operate on many of them spending 8 days from dawn till early morning treating them. With 50,000 or so men left lying dead or wounded, unavoidably there were too few medical officers in attendance to treat them and it took days to clear the area. Only 270 surgeons were employed to treat the injured, few of whom were experienced, resulting in cases of ‘sugar loaf stumps‘, an amputation that is performed too close to the bone causing a conical stump which is difficult to heal.

As “one of the few surgeons to acknowledge the trauma he suffered”,  Bell’s experiences left him “drained” and prey to a “gloomy, uncomfortable view of human nature” for some time after (Stanley, 2003). Judging by the graphic evidence, this is no surprise. The original watercolour sketches are at the Army Medical Services Museum along with the rest of the RAMC archive, but the digitised versions offer us all a revealing insight into the medical aspect of the Battle of Waterloo.

Julia Nurse

Julia Nurse

Julia Nurse is Collections Researcher at the Wellcome Library. With a background in art history, she has previously worked as Assistant Curator of the Iconographic Collections, and more recently co-curated the content within the refurbished Reading Room.

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3 comments on Wounds from the Battle of Waterloo
  • Austin P.

    04/05/2016

    A horrible matter, but it´s not suprising.
    Do you know how were the weapons that did these horrible wounds, the bayonets, the briquet cutlasses…?

    A book higly recommendable on this important subject: “Seventy images for hundred days” haved the answer.

    Ask, of course, to the ubicuous mr. Amazon.

    ; ))

    Reply

  • Mrs Jo Baker

    15/10/2016

    Thomas Large who married into my family was severely injured on the 18th June at Waterloo, having fought I believe all the battles since Marksom in Feb. 1814 Is it possible that when he arrived back in England he would have been sent to the hospital at Chelsea? If not there, where? Or simply sent home (to Leicestershire)
    I would very much appreciate your comments, Jo Baker

    Reply

    • Malcolm Grant Hutton

      07/03/2017

      It may have depended on how severely he was wounded. Sgt.Mjr. James Draffin of the Grenadier Guards was severely wounded in both thighs and testicles. Yet he was then with the Army of Occupation that marched into France and was in Paris with the Army in 1816/7. This is all in his service record which I got from Find My Past. Later on he became a Yeoman Warder and is buried in the Tower of London. The 1841 census shows his widow Charlotte and son Richard still living with friends in the Tower.

      Reply

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